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By A. S. Hidayetoglu

HAZRET-i MEVLANA

Mohammed Jelaleddin Rumi

1207-1273
 

?NTRODUCTION

 

"Came from God, we're going to God... None has strength and power except God.

We haven't seen a better way and walking than that of Muhammed aleyhi's-salatii ve's-selam." It is Sultami'l-A?ikin Hz. Mevlana, born from this family to this world being the sun of love and mercy, science and culture.

While remembering the mine of mercy; Hz. Mevlana, who reached perfection with the love and enlighment of our dear prophet Muhammed, who is rahmeten li'1-alemin, with the intention of rejoicing his beautiful and kind soul, let's convey his two verses literally.

In this booklet, the life of Hz, Mevlana Muhammed Celaleddin-i Rumi has been tried to be explained shortly with his huge help. He is an ocean. This booklet is a few dry leaves.

Greetings (Selam) to those who study this booklet.

I request the pray of my readers. I wish a great comfort to the souls of my readers who send their prays.

My God! What a nice owner and how nice and holly helper you are!

The only owner of us! My huge God! We are wishing your nice and holly help to be with us. Plase!
 

Assistant Associate Dr. A. Selâhaddin Hidayetoglu
University Of Selçuk
Faculty of Theolog
Turkish-Islamic Literature Deparment
 

 

CONTENTS

I- MEVLANA, FROM HIS BIRTH TO HIS DEATH
A-Mevlana's Life in Balkh:
1- His Name and Titles
2- His Birth Place, Date Genealogy
3- Bahaeddin Veled's Personality
B.Emigrating From Balkih and Arrival to Konya:
1- Emigrating From Balkh
2, Mevlana's Marriage
3. TKeir Settlement in Konya
Mevlana's Life in Konya:
1- Baha Veled's Death
2. Maarif
3, Seyyid Burhaneddin
D. Mevlana's Journey to Halep and Shaixi
E. The Teachers of Mevlana in His Phiolosophy;
a. SheiTis froixi Tebriz
b. Sheik Selahaddin Zerkub
c- Chelebi Husameddin
. Mevlana's Death and His Thoughts About Death


II. MEVLANA'S PERSONALITY

A- Mevlana's Personality
B- Mevlana's Way of Thinking
1 - Music and the Beautiful Sound
2. Love and Lover
3. His Interpretation of Death
4- His Ideas on Wealth, Possessions, Position
5. 'Works of Mevlana

 



HAZRET-I MEVLANA MOHAMMED JELALEDDIN RUMI

( His Life - His Personality - Thoughts - Works)


 

HIS NAME AND TITLES

 

Mevlana's name is Mohammad Jelaleddin and his titles are Lord (Hudavendigar), Mevlana, Mystery of God Almighty (Sirru'llahu'a'zam), Mevlevi and Rumi.

The title of Hudavendigar (Lord) was conferred upon him as a sign "of his outward and inward magnificence by his father, Sultan of Sholars W , Bahaeddin Veled. We often see the name Hudavendigar in Sipehsalar's work (? - 1312), Menakib-i Hudavendigar which is one of the main sources of Mevlevi History, and in Eflaki's work, Me’nakibul Arifin*

The title "Mevlana" began to be heard when he was young and started to teach in Konya. Eflaki always mentions him as Mevlana in his Menakib. The title that means "Our Lord" was used by Mevlevi saints from the time of Shems-i Tebrizi and Sultan Veled, and it almost became a proper name instead of his name.

Yunus (? - 1320) uses both titles together in his poetry:

Ever since the master (Mevlana) has cast his spritiul eyes on me, They have become the mirror of my heart"

Sirru'llahu'l-a'zam (Mystery of God Almighty) was conferred upon him by Eflaki but he did not use it in his writtings.

Kasim-i Envar from Tebriz (? -1432) used the title "Mevlana" first. Molla Cami also (1414 -1492) used the same title with reverence.

The word Rumi means an Anatolian. Jelaleddin was known widely as Rumi since he lived in Konya, a city in the province of Anatolia which was called Diyar^ i Rum (The Country of the old Romans) in the past, and spent of his time there and also his tomb was built in the same place.

He is remembered by such titles as; Molla Hiidavendigar, Molla Hunkar, Mevlana-yi Rumi, Mevlevi Rumi, Pir-i Rumi, Cenab~i Pir, Hazret-i Pir which are used by ordinary followers, lovers, and great followers who stand for Mevlana. Until recently, in Konya, in Anatolia the sons of Mevlana were called Molla Hunkar's sons or Mol-la's sons.

 

HIS BIRTH PLACE, DATE GENEALOGY

 

The birthplace of Mevlana, Balkh in the present northern Afganistan was an old Turkish cultural center. At that time, the country which Balkh belonged to was called Horasan.

Since Sasani times, Horasan was the cradle of Islamic Iranian Literature and the environment of the first Iranian poets after the acceptance of Islam.

They generally accepted birthdate of Mevlana is 6 Rebiul-ewel (The third month of the Lunar Year), 604 [604 /September 30 th. / 1207].

His mother, who belonged to a "noble family, was Riikneddin's, the governor of Balkh, daughter Mumine Hatun. His paternal grandmother is the Turkish princess Melike-i Cihan Emetullah Sultan, a member of Harzcmshahs (East Turkish Sultanate -1157).

His father is Mohammed Bahaeddin known as Sultanu'l-Ule'tna (Leader of Scholars). His grandfather is Ahmet Hatibi's son, Huseyin Hatibi.

Hüseyin Hatibi was a scholar whose knowledge was as vast and boundless as an ocean. Nigaburlu Raziyiiddin, considered a great learned man and a scholar, was one of his students.

Some sources and naturally the great Mevlevis write down that Sultanu'l Ulema Bahaeddin Veled's lineage descended from the Prophet Mohammed's grandson Huseyin in the thirteenth generation and paternal ancestors descended from Ebubekir Siddik in the tenth generation. Some researchers consider this to be untrue though it was accepted by Mevlevis for ages- We want to give Mevlana's viewpoint about hisdescendants. He says:

"A hundred thousand blessings on his (Mohammed) spirit and on the advent and cycle of his sons. Those fortunate caliph-born sons of his are born of the substance of his soul and heart. Whether they be of Baghdad or Herat or Rayy, they are his progeny without admixture of water and earth. Wherever the rose-bough blossoms it is still the same rose, wherever the wine jar bubbles it is the same wine." (3)

Sultanul-Ulema Bahaeddin Veled was born in Balkh(545/1150).(4)

His relation with-the order of dervishes, with recital suggestion and the cloak began through his grandfather, Ahmet Hatibi, who was the famous Imam Gazali's brother. Imam Gazali (?-1123) dealt with love in his works and his main emphasis was on love.

Sultanul-Ulema, who was brought up through his father's and, grandfathers divine knowledge and enlightment, profited from Necmiid-din Kubra andbecame one of his successors.
 

BAHAEDDIN VELED'S PERSONALITY

 

Bahaeddin Veled was a revelationist and an experienced master who deeply understood inward meaning. He was peerless in outward and inward sciences. He was like an endless ocean made up of theology and divine reality. He was a person who was admired and respected by everybody. He was very modest and pious and he fought against his soul. He applied himself to solve the difficult fetwas from the distant regions of Horasan. According to the order ot the scripture he had a definite amount of money from the public treasury and he lived on that definite salary. He did not get anything from the foundation.(5)

He was officially titled the Sultan of the scholars by his colleagues. It was rumoured that his title was given to him by the Prophet Mohammad. The thoughts and feelings of an important Mevlevi about this title is like that. The Turks had a custom that showed their good characters. They did not want those who were very talented and had virtue to be lost without showing them. They used to title them tp show their importance and to encourage the people to study both science and theology- This tradition was important evidence to show the Turks' respect for virtue and science. They had to use their titles even over their signatures. As for them, they considered this title a prize and were never proud of them.

Sultanu'l-Ulema was dressed like a scholar. He used to teach people between the morning time of prayer and the noon time of prayer everyday and offer them useful information. He often talked to them about divine reality and theology after the noon time of prayer. He used to preach to all people on Monday morning,

Bahaeddin Veled gave sermons in a state of ecstasy and enthusiasm-Those who were listening to him were enraptured by the thoughts which he expressed amorously and sagaciously- He usually refused the Greek scholar's thoughts in his preaching, and he often asked the question: "How can those who follow tKose scholars who do not give importance to sacred scriptures hope to be saved? (6)

And he occasionally spoke against Fahreddin Razi Harzem?ah, and the others who were considered to be innovators and pointed 'out that the best way was that of the Prophet Mohammed. (7)

One day in his preaching he said to Fahreddin tiarzemgah and the innovation group: " You left relevation and relious points; thousands of hearts that were in peace ran to a few dark nooks. You left so many miracles and ran after images. Did not those lights aid you? Why did that slight darkness blacken your world? This ignorance is just because your ego is dominating you and making you lived in idleness and disobedience without worshipping God.(8)

As a matter of fact Fahri Razi, who did not like sufis and did not want them to be respected by Harzem?ah, and because he was annoyed by Sultanu'l Ulema's manners, informed Harzem?ah against Ulema (scholars). As a result of this, Sultanul-Ulema emigrated from Balkh because Harzemgah hurt his feelings. (9)

Sultan Veled explained why his grandfather emigrated in his book called " Ibtidaname" like this:

Bahaeddin Veled was hurt by the ones who lived in 'Balkh. The feelings of this unfading and everlasting Muslim leader were hurt- At once he heard the words of God, « O, the only brave man; the ruler of the poles and the leaders, this society has hurt you; you get out from your enemies; let me put them in trouble and put them, to be tortured. » When he heard these words he moved from Balkh to Hejaz as he was greatly influenced by that secret. When he was on the way to Hejaz, he-heard that Tatars had attacked Balkh and the Muslim troops had been defeated. They had invaded Balkh and killed innumerable people and destroyed large cities. God has very different types of punishmet." (10)

The researchers show the invasion of the wild Mongols as the reason of Sultanu'l-Ulema's emigration. They think it is more reasonable and fits to the historic facts.

Surely there is reason in every event, and in the result of it and there is no doubt that the creator of everything is God. LetTs hear the reason and results of this migration of Mevlana's :

"God showed more favour to the people who lived in Anatolia and those people deserved mercy with Siddik'i-Ekber's prayer. The best country is theirs, but the people of this country is theirs, and the people of this country were not informed of God's universe of loving and intrinsic enjoyment. God the real creator of the events, did us a favour; He showed a reason and caused us to come to Anatolia from Horasan. God gave a place to our descendants in Anatolia and wanted us to bring them up and educate them so well that they could enlighten the people in this country with mystical elixir. God brought me here, so that I can. mix with the people in Anatolia and form a religious sect " (11)
 

EMIGRATING FROM BALKH

 

After leaving Balkh (1212-1213), Sultanu'l-Ulema intended to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He left for Baghdat. WTien he arrived in Nishabur, Sheikh Feriduddin Attar was one of the great men of the religious order called Kübreviye, and he was educated by Necmuddin Kubra (7-1221). Besides, he "was one of the giants of mystic literature and his "works were considered to be the highest ones of mediation.(13)

This great sufi, Sheikh Attar sees the perfection in Mevlana's writings and gives him his own Masnavi called "Esrar-Name" as a present. He also says to Mevlana's father :"This son of yours will cause a stir in the World in a short time." (14)

When Sultanu'l-Ulema approached Baghdat with the caravan, the guardians of the city asked them which tribe they belonged to and where they were coming from and where they were heading for. Bahaaddin Veled, putting his head out of the wooden frame of his coach, said : "We are coming from God and going to God. Nobody but God has power. We come from nowwhere and go to the same point." When Sheikh Shahabettin Suhreverdi (1145-1235) heard this, he stated that nobody but Bahaeddin Veled could say such words. He went to give them a warm welcome. When they met, §ahabettin Suhreverdi dismounted his horse, kissed Baha Veled's knees gently. He asked them to honour the lodge, but Sultanu'l'Ulema went to the med-rese saying it was more convenient for Imams. Suhreverdi paid compliments and treated him kindly helping him take off his boots. (15)

Baha Veled did not stay longer than three days and left for the Kaaba, taking the Kufe road. After becoming a pilgrim, he came over to Damascus on the way back. He talked to Sheikh Muhiddin Ibnu'l-Arabi (1165-1240) in Damascus. Sheikh Muhyiddin Ibnul-Arabi said in astonishment that an ocean was going after a sea, looking at Mevlana who was walking behind Sultanu'l-Ulema. (16)

Baha Veled with his only son Mevlana came to Anatolia from Damascus.They had been to Malatya, Erzincan and Karaman. Finally, they settled in Konya. Sultan Veled says-: "Mevlana came to Anatolia from Kaaba to bring divine grace to the people there. He chose Konya in Anatolia"(17)

 

MEVLANA'S MARRIAGE

 

Listening to his father's advice when they were in Karaman (622/ 1225), Mevlana married Gevher Banvi, the good-tempered, beautiful daughter of Hodja §erafeddin Lala who was a very respected and blessed. Mevlana was at the age of eighteen when he got married.(18) Mohammed Bahaeddin Veled who was widely known as Sultan Veled, and Alaeddin Mohammed are the fruits of this marriage.

 

THEIR SETTLEMENT IN KONYA

Baha Veled settled in Konya, the capital of the Seljukian Turks on May 3, 1228. <19> Soon after this,

Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad ruled from 1219 to 1236), who was very religious and fond of Islam mysticism, held a big meeting in Sujtanul-Ulema's honour in his palace. He became a novice of Baha Veled in the presence of all the scholars, ie learned, judges, generous group and solitaries. Following the Sultan, all important people became his novices.

 

BAHA VELED'S DEATH

 

Baha Veled passed away on 18 Rebiul-Ahir, 628 (The fourth month of the lunar year) The late Friday morning of February 24, 1231. (21) He left his work Maarif and the benevolent successor Mohammed Celaleddin in this World.

Sultanul-Ulema lived in such a way that he did not go after fame or interest and his only aim was to express his ideas and feelings. Mean while he did not neglect training and enlightening the people around. Therefore, in a way his works "Maarif" is a review of his thoughts and feelings.
 

MAARIF
 

Maarif is a mystic and moral work up of Bahaeddin Veled's speeches, sermons and advice written down by made himself. Maarif, a first class work, in terms of its subject, contents and style, is of great significance because of its own value and impact on Mevlana (23)

The facts of sufism were expressed very clearly and brightly in Maarif. The fine taste, the beauty of the phrases and very nice examples of poetic prose in many parts of the work can easily be seen with little attention.(24)

When Baha Veled passed away, Mevlana was twenty-four years old. Because of his father's will (25) and followers' demand, (26) he took-over his father's post. Mevlana was unique in asceticism, and in delicacy, in science, theology and Fatwa like his father and he raised the flag of religion. (27)
 

SEYYID BURHANEDDIN

After his father's death, Mevlana had no spiritual guide for a year until he met Seyyid Burhaneddin. In 629/1232, his fathers respected.

Kaliphat, Seyyid Burhaneddin, Muhakkik-i Tirmizi came to Konya from Turkistan and became his spiritual guide and teacher.

Seyyid Burhaneddin was a perfect guide of very high rank. His compilation named "Maarif is evidence of his comprehension. He was called Seyyid-i Sirdan because he knew the secrets in hearts.

Seyyid Burhaneddin said to Mevlana whom he put on his shoulders and took for a walk like a Lala and an Atabek in Mevlana's childhood :

"There is no other person like you in science, you are superior, but your father was a mystic model. Look him and give up the words. You seized his words with your hands, but be intoxicated with his position like me. So, become a complete inheritor. Resemble the sun in giving off light to the World. You are the inheritor of your father outwardly but I have got the essence. Harmonize with me and look to his friend." (28)

When Mevlana heard these words from him, he became the soul. He became his follower sincerely and completely like a dead man.

The first follower of Mevlana was Seyyid Burhaneddin whom he considered as his father. When Seyyid Burhaneddin came to Konya, Mevlana served him for nine years. (29) During this period of time he became experienced and mature with the perfect wise man's advice concerning zeal and asceticism. He became a saintly man and denied himself. He rose to the degree of Hiidavendigarhk. Mevlana addresses himself in his Masnevi like this :

"Become mature and be far from change for the worse; go, become the light, like Burhan-i Muhaggig. When you have escaped from self, you have become the proof (of God), when the slave (in you) has become non-existent you have become the King." (30)

 

MEVLANA'S JOURNEY TO HALEP AND SHAM (Damascus) FOR EDUCATION

Mevlana went to Halep with the permission of Seyyid Burhaneddin in order to specialize in high sciences. He took lessons from Adimoglu Kemaleddin who had excellent works and was uniquely omniscient in canon, in interpretation and methods in Halaviyye Medrese. This person showed respect and regarded Mevlana as superior to his friends noticing the nobility and the guiding light on his face. (31)

Mevlana went to Sham when he had finished his education in Halep. He stayed there for four years in order to research in science and learn special skills. During this period Sham, was the centre of science and comprehension and was a shelter for knowledgeable and learned men who escaped from Mongol intrigues. When Mevlana was in Sham, he talked to Sheikh Muhyiddin Arabi, who was the Sultan of wise-men and Sadeddin Hamevi, who had attained to the degres of perfection, Osman Rumi, who was the master of Sheikhs and Rahhani Fakir Evhaeddin Kirmani and Sultan Sadrettin Konevi, who was the Sultan of traditionists. (32) Sipehsalar says that Mevlana talked to Shem-seddin Tebrizi, who was the Sultan of chiefs and saints and the followers in Damascus. (33)

According to Eflaki, this interview lasted for a short period and was like this : "One day Shems was among the people, he met Mevlana and kissed his hand. He said, « Understand me, the money-changer of the World! » (34) About eight years after this moment's interview, His excellency Shems came to Konya and talked to Mevlana in a friendly way."

 

HIS MEETING WITH SHEMS FROM TEBRIZ

Who is that Shems? That person's name is Shemseddin Mohammed and he was born in 582/1186. Shems who was the son of Melekdad's son, Ali, from Tebriz joined Sheikh Ebubekir Sellebaf from Tebriz (Sellebaf means basketmaker) who was the most significant of the time in discovering the secrets of the hearts and in guardianship. Besides, Shems completed his training and education thanks to his teaching- As Shems was not satisfied with the position he reached, he set out to find more mature spiritual guides- He travelled for years until he got exhausted and talked to the wise of that time. The scholars who contacted him called him Shems-i Perende (The flying Sun) allusively. (40)

As a matter of fact, Shems was a very profound.

Sufi- He was o lover of God who could not find a real friend who could satisfy him in conversation, although he had talked to very many sheikhs. He was a great man who lived in ecstasy fearlessly and had a great impact but always felt the responsibility of discovering his own spirit. He had been a free dervish mentally and spiritually since his childhood. The two meaning ful events in two rumours I will remark below may point out Shemsf characteristics and disposition.

 

QUOTED FROM EFLAKI:(41)

There was a big ceremony of giving a post and they were going to give title of "Sheikh" to a great person. All scholars, sheikhs, philosophers, governors and the wise were present at that ceremony. Mevlana Jalaladdin, like a treasure, was meditating in one corner. All of a sudden he stood up and addressed them: "How long are you going to boast, talking about the rumours of this or that person and run in the field of men monting a saddle without a horse? Isn't there anybody among you who can say he is inspired by God? How long are you going to 'walk with others' staffs?"

 

FROM SHEMS HIMSELF :(42)

I wasn't at the age of adoloscence yet. I would feel like eating or drinking for days when I dived in the sea of love. One day my father scolded me saying : "Son, I don't like the way you act and I am afraid your end will be disasterous*" I answered : "Father, do you know what the relation between us is like? If they put a goose egg among the eggs under a hen, the chicks hatch when it is the time. Those chicks go after their mother altogether. When they come across a lake on the way, the gosling hatched out of the goose egg jumps into the water. When the hen sees it, she gets panicked thinking that her chick will be drowned. Whereas, the gosling swims merrily. The difference between you and me is like that."

 

SHEMSI ARRIVAL IN KONYA (Eflaki narrates that):

Shems, was in mediation and he was very excited one night. Being in ecstacy because of seeing God, he prayed to God : "O, my God! I want you to reveal me one of your secret followers." He was in' spired by God that what he wanted was mevlana who was in Anatolia. (43) His remarks in his articles confirm this narration,

Being inspired, Shems arrived in Konya on November 29,1244 (45) and rented a room in Shekerciler Inn. This Seyyid Burhaneddin's discovery came true. Mevlana and Shems, the two gifted men, the two lights, the two spirits met finally. Shems was sixty and Mevlana was Thirty-eight years old then. These two sacred lovers dedicated themselves to God and conversed concerning God. At this point, we will read the most important matter, the reform in Mevlana's life from Sultan Veled's brief statement. We will not mention the narrations about his retirement for devotion and the meeting, no matter how important they are.

Sultan Veled narrates that i (46)

"All of a sudden Shemseddin came to him, the shade disappeared in the light of his brilliance. A quiet voice of love was heard from the world of love. The beloved told him his secrets. He said: "You are the hostage of the spiritual essence but you must know that I am the inward spiritual essence. I am the secret of secrets and the light of moral lights and even the saints cannot reach my secrets. Love is also* a curtain in my way. Even a living love is dead before me. The eternal sultanate is the lovers' but the beloveds' sovereignty is dearer than it. Shems invited Mevlana to an unusual world. It was such a world that neither a Turk nor an Arab saw it. The master sheikh (That is Mevlana) began to relearn study in his presence.

He had reached the end but then he began from the very beginning. While being obeyed, he was obeyed, he was obeying him. He was unique in being learned but the knowledge he was being offered was thoroghly new."

And again we learn the following important point from Sultan Veled : "There is more important rank than rank of saints and dervishes in the world and that is the belovedness. No ear had heard of the state of those at this stage. No information had come to the world concerning the stage of the beloved. Shems from Tebriz, may God furnish us with his secret which appeared and raised Mevlana from the stage of the lover to the stage of the beloved that had never been heard so far. Mevlana was the pearl of the sea of the beloved in eternity; everything changes into its origin." (47)

Sultan Veled's resembling Mevlana to Moses and Shems to Hidir is actually meaningful and humorous. About this matter he said :

"Although Moses was one of the big prophets who was able to talk to God, he looked for H?d?r and became the friend of the friends of God. Although Mevlana had reached the highest spiritual rank, the miracles, the secrets of his time, he looked for Tebriz-i Shems."

In this case, Shems looked for Mevlana and vice versa. Shems was in love with Mevlana and Mevlana was in love with him, too. The lover was also the beloved. Mevlana says that:

"The beloveds look for the lovers eagerly. All the beloved are hunted by the lovers. Whoever is a lover, he is surely the beloved at the same time as he is loved by the beloved. The thirsty ones look for water in the world and the water also looks for the thirsty ones".

This point is certain in a sacred verse of the Koran which rough'" means: "God loves them and they love God" (K.V, 54). That meai.-first God is the lover and the ones who are loved are the beloved. Than the good people become lovers and God the beloved

Mevlana, who met Shems, confined all his time to Shems' talks, participated in his lights and entered an absolutely new world. His secret love in his piety and devotion came out and he whirled in ecstacy with Shems under his charm.

The ones who were unable to understand the divine secret of his novices and the inhabitans of Konya said : 'Who is that man who grasped our sheikh and removed him away like a river carrying a staw away. He must be a witch who charmed our sheikh with his spell and charm to himself. Such rumours were spread. (48)

Consequently Shems was hurt and left Konya in spite of Mevlana's ardent request, 21 ?ewal, 643/March 14, 1246 on Thursday.

 

SHEMS' RETURN TO KONYA

 

Shems left Damascus for Konya accepting Mevlana's invitation (644/1247), Sultan Veled travelled on foot more than a month on the way back due to his love and respect for Shems. (51) They arrived in Konya after the long trip which was particularly prosperous for Sultan Veled. Everybody was pleased with Shems' coming back.Mevlana was relieved of the trouble of missing Shems. Parties were given and whirling dances were held in his honour.

The days full of love and friendship did not last long. The insolent ones began to behave shamelessly again.

Shems realized that they were loaded with hatred, they had no love in their hearts and they became the slaves of their egoism and they were trying to get rid of him. He said to Sultan Veled :

"You see they came together in violence again. They want to part me from Mevlana, who is unique in every subject and rejoice over my departure* This time I want to go somewhere nobody will be able to find me and even a trace of mine won't be found."(52)

 

SHEMS' MISSING

 

All of a sudden Shems disappeared in 645/1247-1248. Mevlana cried with grief, so they looked for Shems everywhere. Nobody heard of him. Neither a sign was found nor a word was received from him.(53)

Eflaki says Shems was assasinated in his work, Menakibiil'Arif and Cami also says the same in Nefehatii'1-Uns. Those who accept Shems' honour of martyrdom depend on those two sources. We read in Mevlana's works, from Sultan Veled's Iptida-Name, and from Menakib-i Hiidavendigar by Ahmet Sipehsalar, who had been in Mev-lana's service for forty years. Shems left Konya and disappeared.

About this M. Bahari Beytur, one of the great Mevlevis of last century says :

"I'm sure that his disappearance is a fact. My master, teacher, one of the great scholars Hiiseyin Fahri Dede who was the sheikh of Bahariye Mevlevi Lodge where we were educated, Jalaleddin dede, the Sheikh of Yenikapi Mevlevi lodge Ahmet Remzi Dede, the sheikh of Uskiidar Mevlevi lodge, and Veled (Qelebi Efendi, on of the latest heads of the lodge who studied the history of Mevlevi Sect in detail do not agree to the assasination of Shems."(54)

Prof Dr. Bedüizzaman Füruzanfer also writes that Shems got lost, in his book, Mevlana Jalaleddin.(55)

The tomb in Konya which is referred to as Shems' is a monument of appreciation put up in order to commemorate Shems' sanctifying glorification. Those who visit this tomb not only remember Shems but also are enlightened by his sacred spirit. Therefore this tomb is a holy place tobe visited for both the people who believe Shems disappered and the ones who believe he was assasinated.(56)

 

MEVLANA AFTER SHEMS' MISSING

 

Mevlana asked everybody about Shems after his dissapperance. Whenever a person gave him a piece of information about Shems, whether it was true or not, Mevlana thanked him and gave him his cloak and turban for the good news. One day a man brought Mevlana the news that he had seen Shems in Damascus. Mevlana became so happy that he gave the man his turban, cloak and everything he had on. One of Mevlana's friends told him that the news was not true and that news had given the cloak and turban for the false news and added that In would have given his soul if the news had been true.(57)

Sultan Veled describes Mevlana's unsteady and wild state on those days like this :

"He confined himself to Shems all day and night anc whirled on the earth like the sky. His cries were heard by everyone. He gave all his money, gold and silver and possessions to the musicions who sang or played at the lodge. He performed whirling dances all the time without resting for a moment. Such a great man, such a judge of Islamic Law, th Sheikh and Imam of the two Worlds was acting wildly and exuberantly. Everybody, old or young, took to whirling and rode the celestial horse of love, Burak (A vehicle on which Mohammed travelled to God) What they were constantly reciting were ghaz-els and couplets. Love dominated them and everything except love was nonsense for them. They were living in such an ecstacy, love and pleasure.(58) After this explanation of Sultan Veled, is it possible not to remember Fuzuli's following stanza?

'To attain dignity via knowledge is a vain idea

It is love in the universe

It is love that counts while knowledge

is only words uttered."

 

MEVLANAS TRIP TO DAMASCUS AND HIS RETURN

 

Mevlana searched for Shems. He wrote poems about Shems' departure which burn hearts and give pain to them. His heart cooled off a little with the news that Shems was in Damascus. Mevlana and some of his friends went to damascus to look for Shems. He asked after him and searched for him but could not find him. They came back to Konya. After a while Mevlana and his friends went to damascus again to look Shems with great eagerness. The dates of these two last trips are unknown, but the probaple dates are 645/1248-647/1250.

Mevlana stayed in damascus for a few months during his fourth journey but he could not find him.

As Sultan Veled expressed it, Mevlana couldn't find Shems' body but found his spirit in his own body. He saw Shems in his own body, that looked like the moon and said:

"Physically I am seperate but without life and body we are one and the same. O thee that are looking for Him! You can be either him or me. He is me and I am Him."(59)

"Since I am Him, then what am I looking for? I am His copy, then let me speak of myself. I was looking for myself; I was fermenting like grape-juice. Grape juice does not ferment for others. It accords with its beauty and comes into action in order to menifest it"(60)

For this purpose, it will be convenient to quote th narration from Eflaki :

"Shemseddin from Malatya, who was one of the sublime professors of theology and philosophy said: «One day, Mevlana was in the garden of Qelebi Husameddin,'61' who was a Ciineyd his feet in the river was offering divine knowledge* While speaking, he was greatly praising*the Sultan of the Poor, Shems from Tebriz* Hearing this, Miiderrisoglu Bahaeddin who was one of the leading scholars sighed and said: "What a pity! What a great pity!"

"Why is it a pity? Why are you so sad? What does this sorrow mean in our gathering?" asked Mevlana. Bedreddin felt ashamed and in reverence said : "I am worried that I can't reach Shems and make use of his presence."

Mevlana became silent for a while and said nothing. Then, he said: "You did not reach Shems but I swear upon my father's sacred spirit that you reached the person who had one hundred thousand Shems on each one of his hair and reached the one the secret of whom astonished even Shems. » Upon this Mevlana's friend became cheerful and began to whirl. Then, he began to recite the following lyric poem, ghazel:

"All of sudden I uttered the name of rose and rose-garden. Upon hearing these names, the rosy cheeked beloved caressing my cheeks said:

'I am the king and the life of rose. How dare you seek something else when you are in the presence of a king like me?' (63)

 

A FEW WORDS ABOUT MEVLANA AND SHEMS

Mevlana summed up his spiritual contemplative life in the single line :

" I was raw, I was cooked and then burnt".

He was trained and educated by his father, Sultanu'l-Ulema and by Seyyid Burhaneddin's knowledge, and he was burnt by the fire of love of his rare beauty he saw in Shems' mirror.(64)

Mevlana had become mature when he met Shems in Konya. Shems became a mirror for Mevlana. Mevlana fell in love with his unique beauty he saw in Shems' mirror or he enlivened the love of God in Shems.(65)

Mevlana's love for Shems is the criterion of his love of God. For he saw the birght manifestation of God in Shems.

Mevlana was a rose about to bloom and Shems became a gentle breeze for him. Mevlana was the wine of love and Shems became a wine glass for him. In fact, Mevlana was very great and Shems encouraged him and guided him in a way. (66) Words to say on that matter are countless. In other words Shems lit Mevlana but such a big volcano was formed that he himself burnt among its flames(67)

 

MAKALAT-AL SHEMS

Shems has a work called Makalat. It is a selection containing conversations between Shems and Mevlana, Shems' speeches in some services and his answers to the followers of the order and to the non-believers. The awkward, deficient sentences show that Shems did not write it down himself.(68)

Füruzanfer points out the literary importance of that work saying 'The importance of Makalat is great from the points of view of the attraction and elegance of phrases and the beauty of the words in the book. It is one of the great treasures of the Persian language and literature. If there were not incomplete and irrelevant parts in Makalat due to the mistakes or the person who wrote it down, it would be one of the best Moslem mystic works."

 

SEIKH SALAHADDIN ZERKUB

Mevlana on his last Damascus Journey gave up searching for Shems after.seeing him in himself and turned to Konya as completely happy. After this journey Mevlana spread religious poems for twenty-three years. But he never dealt with bringing up the people because he was completely exalted. He gave the task of bringing up the people to one of his "most elite and skilled friends. He appointed Sheikh Sala-haddin Zerkub from Konya to this job and told his friends, "I want all of you to be around Sheikh Salahaddin" and asked them to show him respect and love. He also showed a deep love to sheikh Salahaddin next to Shems.(69)

Sheikh Salahaddin was an illiterate person. He spent his time with the work in his jewellery shop. Once Mevlana, passing through the shop, heard the sound of hammers and began to whiril with the harmony of these sounds.

Those who did not find Sheikh Salahaddin approprite for this post were jealous of Mevlana's symathy for him. They attempted to insult sheik Salahaddin as they did Shems.

He just said he was just a mirror of Mevlana not another character. For ten years they were close friends. Then, Sheikh Salahaddin became sick and died in August 957/1259. He was buried near Sultanul-Ulema.

 

ÇELEB? HÜSAMEDD?N

Mevlana described Qelebi Husameddin at the begining of his Mesnevi as a perfect person. He said :

'The key of the treasuries of the empire, The trustee of the riches stored in the earth, thi father of virtues, the sound of the truth and religion, Hasan son of Mohammed son of al-Hasan generally known as Ibn Akki Turk, the Abu Yazd of the time the Junayd of the age, the entirely veracious son of an entirely veracios sire and gransire^May God be well pleased with him and with them-a native Urmiye. May God bless him and his ancestors."

After the death of Sheikh Salahaddin Mevlana chose Qelebi Husameddin for himself as a close companion and caliph. Mevlana said to his fruends :

"You should respect him and open your wings in front of him. You should carry out all his orders and plant the seeds of his love in your hearts and I hight your eyes with him. May your eyes be lightened with him, in such a rose garden and a* the edge of the river. Because he gives secrets to those who cannot reach the secret of God* He gives wings to those who haven't got them. He grants love to guide everybody. He gives love and reality to everybody He is the light of God and he is a mine of God's mercy*" (70)

All his friends obeyed him, too. Each of them were ashamed of their rude behaviour in doing wrong before Sheikh Salahaddin and Shems. They all submitted to Qelebi Husameddin who was a real man of God without jealousy. None of them were separated from that group. They all accepted the orders with heart and soul.

Celebi Husameddin, who worked hard in the protection of the Sharia and in following the faith of the Prophet Mohammed, is an admirer of Mevlana.

Although Celebi is a Shafi'i, he wants to follow Mevlana's sect. One day he comes to the presence of Mevlana and says, "Because Mevlana is a Hanafi, I want to follow his sect." But, Mevlana says: " No. No. It is very convenient to conform with your own sect and follow it, but you follow me and direct people to our way of love."

Mevlana's love was such that he never felt Hiisameddin's side for even a moment. He only became happy in the group where Husameddin was. Husameddin gave him comfort and joy. For Mevlana it was only Husameddin Qelebi, who understood the meaning of the truth. As you see, Qelebi Husameddin found Mesnevi the greatest didactic work of Islamic mystic literature by seeing Mevlana's spirit which resembles never ending treasure.

Sipehsalar says :

"Actually Mesnevi was written by the request of Qelebi Husameddin. Even non-muslim monotheists thank Qelebi in connection with Mesnevi being written. They cannot pay their debts of gratitude for this great work till the Doomsday."

 

THE MESNEVI IS BORN

That was the reason why Mesnevi was written, the most beautiful keepsake of conversations that passed between Mevlana and (Qelebi. Qelebi Husameddin realized that his friends were zealously busy with sheik Feriduddin Attar and Hakim Senai's works, and they enjoyed the secrets of these works, but their peculiar meanings appeared strange to them, so (Qelebi Husameddin wanted Mevlana to have a work which contained the mystical truth, good-manners and the details of God's way. Husameddin was only waiting\for an opportunity to mention this idea to Mevlana.

One day the opportunity came. When they were together, Husameddin began to explain his idea to Mevlana by saying:

"My Sultan! You have composed many poems in the ghaz-el form. The Divan would be large if you were to write a book similar to the Ilahiname of Hakim Senai or the Mantik'ut-Tavn of Feriduddin Attar. This work of yours will be the fellow traveller of all mintrels. From now on, minstrels would fill their hearts with your work, this is the grace of God."

Mevlana smiled at Qelebi's words. From the folds of his turban, he removed a piece of paper which contained the eighteen verses of Mesnevi and handed it to Celebi. On this paper the first line begins like this:

"Listen to the reed how it tells a tale, complaining of separations", and it ends with this line:

« None that are raw understand the state of the ripe, therefore my words must be brief. Farewell!"

Then Mevlana said:

"Before you had not got such an idea, God inspired me to write such a book. Now come and fly as high as you can through the sky. Then go to the Prophet Mohemmed's Voice to heaven, following Mohammed's way."

In just the same way Mevlana explains in the fourth volume of Mesnevi (in the first lines).

 

?EB-I ARUS
 

Mevlana, the sun of culture and love, was born to the infinite sky on Cemazelahir 672/six month of the lunar year/17. December 1273 Sunday at dawn with all his light and beauties. He put off his mortal clothes. Put on the clothes made of dawn and lightning which is light forever. The members of the order of Whirling Dervishes call that night §eb-i Arus,

While going to his infinite voyage, Mevlana said, "While my coffin is being taken when I am dead, do not think that I have the trouble of this universe. When you see my corpse, do not say separation, separation. In that time I will have meeting, seeing. When you put me in a grave, do not say to me farewell, farewell because the grave is the curtain of the heavens*"

 

MEVLANA'S FUNERAL

Old or young, Muslim or not all the inhabitants of Konya attended Mevlana's funeral. The beautiful voiced keepers were reading verses of the Koran with rapture, the pleasant voiced muezzins were giving calls to prayers, the beautiful readers were reading the Elegy which he had told before his death. Neys were being played, the tambourines were being beaten, and haliles were being played. There were many people who were dancing and shouting and feeling faint. They burst into tears.

Even Christians and Jews were behaving like Moslems as if they felt the same sorrow and they were crying and shouting and reading verses from the Psalms of David, The Pentateuch and the Bible. Moslems could not make them go away by sticks or swords. When they said to them, "What is the relation between this occasion and you? This religion and Sultan Mevlana are ours* He is our Imam." Then, they said: " We understood the realities of Moses, Jesus and the other prophets from his clear words and saw in him the nature and behaviour of the mature prophets that we had read in our books. If you are his friend, we are his friend, too. He said that 72 nations listened to their secret from them and that they were a flute that gave hundreds of sounds out of a screen. Mevlana's body is the sun of realities that shines on people and gives them favour. All of the world likes sun. All houses are being lightened by its light. Mevlana is like bread. Nobody can say that he does not need bread. Is there any hungry person who runs away from bread?"

Because of Mevlana's will, Sheik Sadreddin, who intended to make people pray for Mevlana, said: "Ah" and praying.

The inhabitants of Konya and Mevlana's friends were talking about his pleasant living, good behaviour, and love of God, not giving importance to the World and giving himself completely to God and beinghumble.

 

THE GREEN DOME

The green Dome, called Kubbe-i Hadra, was built during the reign of Celebi Husameddin. The architect of the türbe was Bedreddin from Tebriz. The sarcophagus made of walnut was accepted as a masterpiece of Seljuki art, and was carved by Selimoglu Abdülvahid.

Mevlana is calling his visitors to be cheerful and not to look for his grave on the floor since it is at the heart of the sensible men.

 

MEVLANA'S PERSONALITY

 

Studying himself by self-discipline (riyadat) and by means of mortification (miicahade) Mevlana was thin and pale though his face was charming, light and brilliant. His eyes were also attractive, keen and enthusiastic.

He used to wear a turban for the learned and a cloak with large sleeves. After Shems' disappearance he put on a gray turban as a sign of sorrow.

Mevlana was a strict follower of the Koran. He considered praying and fasting as practices to get spirituality; so he emphasized prayer.

Mevlana was a perfect heir of Mohammed. His deep tolerance for people from all religions attend his funeral.

It is also narrated how tolerant he could be to people even when they insulted him.

Once an Armenean butcher prostrated himself and Mevlana prostrated himself, too. It is also narrated that once upon a time in Constantinople there was a priest who had heard how illuminated and humble Mevlana was so he decided to visit him in Konya. When he prostrated himself to Hudavendiger the Sultan thrice, he saw Mevlana prostrating for the priest thirty-three times. Then the priest exalted and became converted.

Mevlana was very kind and merciful to children. One day he was passing through a quarter. Children were playing in the road. When they saw Mevlana, all of them bowed. Mevlana also bowed. One of the children was not there. Mevlana kept bowing until he came.

According to Mevlana, first of all human, anyone whoever he was important. It was not important to him if they belonged to a lower or an upper class. On the contrary, he was very merciful to people from the lower class.

One day he honoured Ilica with his friends. Arriving at Ilica, Qelebi Emir Alim ran to the bath and emptied it for Mevlana and his friends. People brought red and white apples and filed the pool with them by Qelebi's order. Entering the bath Mevlana saw that people were dressing nastily and the pool was full of apples. Thereupon he said: "Emir Ali, do you think the lives of those people are less im portant than the apples so you emptied the pond and filled it with apples instead? If you like me, tell them to go into the pond. Let the poor, the rich and the weak not go out of the bath then let me go into the water as an uninvitedguest and rest due to them"

Mevlana is a symbol of peace and love.

Once two great men were behaving hostily and swearing at each other. One of them said, "If you tell a lie, may God kill you" and the other said, "If you tell a lie, may God also kill you". Mevlana suddenly interrupted and said, "No, let God kill neither you nor him, but me. For only I deserve it", and then both men bowed and renewed their friendship.

Another day Mevlana was passing a quarter. Two strangers were swearing at each other. One said: "I take an oath that you will be answered thousand times". Mevlana stopped him and said, "I promise not to answer you so tell me whatsoever you wish. So, the two enemies became friends again."

Since Yunus Emre, there has been a common desire for tolerance and forgiveness.

Mevlana has also emphasized tolerance, "forgiveness and the rehabilitation of criminals. His disciples are chosen from all social classes. He preferred his disciples to be poor even notorious ones.

As an answer to the criticism about his disciples and their social status, he said his main struggle was to regain criminals into society.

He has always suggested to his friends and relatives being kind and tolerant to people.

In those years sufis usually made their living with charities but Mevlana forbade begging and advised them to work in order to make their living.

Mevlana was very kind and compassionate in his letters to his friends and relatives. Those letters were ornamented with very refined and high minded ideas.

 

MEVLANAS WAY OF THINKING

 

How much can a pitcher hold if you pour the seas into it? "As much as its volume permits, if it is empty..." says Mevlana. And like him, I shall try to present my readers with his vast seas of thinking as much as this book permits, and I will do this without any interference without any interpretation, just leaving my adudience alone with him and his way of thinking. The titles in presenting this will be as follows:

Music and the beautiful sound, Rebab, The nay, Whirling, Love, Man, Form-Moral Quality, Death, Repentance, Possessions, Existence, Non-Existence.

 

MUSIC AND THE BEAUTIFUL SOUND

 

"The aim of someone listening to Rebab is to be fed on the imagination of God, as the ones who long for God."

'The Sounds produced by Zurna(Shrill-pipe) and the drum look like the sound of Sur which is considered as something loathed and will be played on Doomsday."

'The rulers claim the tunes of this music are taken out of the vaults of heaven* The songs people sing, the tunes they produce with tambur, are all affected by this/'

"As the believers of Islam say, nasty and unwanted sounds turn out to be pleasant with the influence of heaven."

"All of us used to be the fragments of our creator once and used to listen to similar melodies in the Heaven!"

”The sounds of Earth and Water have made us somewhat uncertain, but we still remember the melodies we used to listen (Mesnevi, Volume IV, pages 731,736)

'This music is a kind of nourishment to those who long for God, freeing them from anxiety, giving them the pleasure of reaching God* It strenghtens the imagination, and images form illustrations with the help of these tunes!"

'The tunes encourage the ardent love" (Mesnevi, Volume IV, pages 742,744}

 

WHAT IS REBAB?

 

"Rebab is the source of love, friend of lovers. Arabs have called it 'the cloud' finding it similar to clouds in function and as the clouds give life to roses and rose gardens keeping them wet, Rebab gives life to the feelings, to the heart like liquor."

'The more you blow upon the fire, the bigger the fire gets, but the more you blow upon the soil the more dust you get."

"Rebab is a messenger, continuously offering to you the opportunity to be near the Ruler. With this message all the lovers come together and avoid being in disorder" (Divan-i Kebir, Golpinarli, Volume III, Page 91)

 

LISTEN WHAT THE NAY SAYS...

 

"Listen how this flute complains, how it expresses the distress of separation."

"Since I was isolated from may reedy, all men and women have been wailing and moaning with may cries."

"I need a broken heart, broken into pieces with the sorrow of separation so that I can share my longines."

'The person in separation longs for the time of going to his Lord."

"I've been crying in every society I've been friens with, bad mannered people as well es well-mannered ones*"

"For them I was a friend but none bothered to reveal the secret in me.'

"My secret isn't anything different from the things I cry (but not every eye and ear has the sensitivity)."

"The body and the soul hide nothing from each other although nobody is allowed to see the soul"

"The tune of this flute is something like a flame, not like the air,"

'If somebody lacks it, he deserves non-existence.'

"It was the passion of love that mixed with the tune of the flute, it was the enthusiasm of love that mixed with the holy wine."

"The flute is the mate of man who is separated from the Maker and it is the pitches of this instrument that mikes the curtain between human beings and the God invisible,"

"Whoever has seen any paison or addiction like the flute, and also whoever has seen a constant companion or a desirous lover like the flute?"

"The way the flute leads to is full of blood and the words of its song are about the love of Mecnun" (Mesnevi, IV, pages 1-3)

 

SOUND OF THE NAY

 

"O, the sounds of the flute, O, you lovely sounds You arouse the whole mysterious heavens/'

"What is a flute? It is something our beloved has kissed."

"Without having hands or feet, this flute captured the hands and feet of all people,"

"The flute is only a medium. Being nothing related to its structure, it is onlythe fluttering soun of an unexpected good luck" (Kiilliyat'i Shems, Gazel 2902, Gokpinarh Volume IV, page 267).

"O, you lovely flute, giving serenity with your warm breath, how easily you wipe off all the sorrows, anxieties of this miserable aggrieved heart and make it an addict of you" (Divan-i Kebir, Golpinarli, Volume II page 446).

 

WHAT IS SEMA?

 

"It is the welcome of the deepest secrets of your heart. O, my sorrowful soul thou can only feel lively and peaceful with, these messages,"

'With its serene breeze thou can broaden the mind; with its gentle beating broaden the body, feel peaceful, at ease."

"One hears the cock of Mortal World, being on duty Behram calls for Victory."

"Once you have heard of tambourine The essence in you are an archer, beating your body with arrows,"

"Something sweet, tender you feel, sweetness spreads out from the flute to your mouth."

"Look out and see thousands of scorpions of sorrow curled, dead."

'Thousands of moment of joy passing around us without a glass."

"Since all beings will assemble, the dead will awake spring uy,"

"Be ready for the judgement with the call of Sur/'

"Curse those who feel nothing for this music; Like a frozen thing, even inferior to non-existent ones."

"Once one is fed on this legitimate wine, His soul is melted in this wine* He begins to burn with sorrows of separation, becomes more and more mature" (Divan-i Kebir, Golpinarli Volume 111-Page 261).

 

WHY DO-DERVISHES WHIRL?

 

In ecstasy Dervishes wish to feel more of a longing of God, want to be parted from Worldy desires. They demand more love for the next world an so they whirl They feel in comformity with, the great Sheiks who are better known than the Sun, whose miracles are world-wide and whose honorable deeds are lectured on in the Pulpit. They look for their footsteps on Earth knowing that when their eyes meet, they will be able to lose themselves with the thinking of God, have the eyes of their souls opened, all the mysteries of the world made clear to them. These have started the tradition of Sema, being the heirs of our prophet, having the knowledge of inheritance, having the power of understanding and intuition. The learned men of Moslem theology read and recite the evident knowledge without intuition at first, but as Hazret-i Mohammed stated God gives them intuition, seeing they have been following the rites they have recited, and so these men are considered to have attained perfection. The rites the sheiks approve of, are the same approved by the prophets, as the Sheik of a particular people is like a prophet to them. Even these sheiks have the virtue of seeing and hearing wit God and their deed may be regarded as Godlike (Fi-hi Mafih, Golpinarli, page 224).
 

JUDGEMENT OF SEMA

 

Some learned men have banned Sema whereas others have permitted it. Both are correct. The ones overcome by their desires, enslaved by lust whirl with haughtiness, ignoring the next world. Their Sema is useless, just a game. They will be in torture as desire, lust, pride all belong to this world, which is in vain (K. XLV1I, 36). "As for the Sema of Sheiks and lovers of God, it is free from useless games, even more precious than others' daily strivings. For these distinctive people Sema is permitted because they have a heart free from Worldy pleasures; the things they love, they love for God, the things they shun, they shun for the sake of God" (Fi-hi Mafih, Golpinarl? page 224-230).
 

LOVE AND THE LOVER

 

From Mesnevi:

 

"Love is the only merriment, the only grief of a lover; it is the only pay he gets for his work" (Volume V.586).

"If a lover is interested in something else rather than his beloved one, his love can not be genuine" (Volume V, 587).

"Love is a flame, burnin bright; it destroys everything but not the beloved one" (V.588).

"Neither a compainon, nor a confident lover har but there is nothing secret to him in the Whole World (VI, 1978).

"Ours is not a sect to be followed by those who have hundreds of Worldly desires at heart" (IV.4043).

"Materials of the World are for those seek for them. But we devoted ourselves to everlasting sovereignty of love" (VI, 4421).

"Player of love for the time of Sema expresses in the music of the lines:

"To be a creature means to have bonds, to be the Lord means to have troubler" (III, 4722)

"What is love then? Vast seas of vanity where the pillars of reason are all broken" (III, 4723).

"Slavery and Sultanate are all clear but the real love is the only secret one between these two" (III, 4724).

"Love is a characteristic of God, who needs- nobody, no prayers. Loving of someone except God is only a temporary inclination" (VI,971).

"A mystical love is a beauty embellished by golden ornaments, o spiritual light with its outlook full of smoke inside" (VI.972).

"Whenever the light recedes leaving only the smoke behind, love is no more fervent, it cools down and freezes"(VI, 973).

"Love can boil the sea like an earthen pot, it can crush the mountain like a gravel" (V, 2735).

"It is the love that opens hundreds of cracks in the sky, causes the Earth to tremble with no reason" (V, 2736).

"It is the love that makes hearts rotate. If there weren't any love the Earth would just freeze" (V, 3854).

"Love is something one can't express in words, it is a sea one cannot see the sea-bed" (V, 2731).

"O, our precious love! Be merry. O, the physician of all our sickness, O, the remedy of our naughtiness and cintemp, O, our Plato. Our Calinus" (1,23,24).

"Our earthen bodies raised towards the skies with the power of love as the mountains were moving, they turned out to be nimble" (1,25)

"O, you lover! Love was the vitality in Tur. Tur was drunken (Tur: Mount Sinai, Mount Tabor) while Moses was unconsicious" (1,26)

"A lover is the craziest person with a deaf and blind reason against his love" (VI, 1979).

"Do not find fault with a lover although he says something wrong; do not intend to wash him although you find him dead covered in blood!" (II, 1766).

"Thou, who leave love as soon as you are ill-treated what do you know expect the name of love" (V,1163).

'Why is it like a blaady assassin at first sight? Of course, to discourege the counterfeit" (III, 4751).

"Love has innumerable whims, manners, innumerable grand deeds. It can only be reached by endless tolerance."

"How can it be possible for the easily frightened ones to reach true love? Whilst the troubler of love from the underlay-er of heavens" (V, 2193).

"It is no use to threaten me to kill, as I myself wish to shed my own blood" (111,3833).

'You are frozen one turned into stone, you deserve none of the preising words; You are a reed, I agree, but a reed without any sweetness in" (HI, 3870).

"If someone is lost in love is lost in distress, neither Ebu Hanife nor ?afi-i has something to say" (III, 3832).

'While trying to express the virtues of love, a hundred Doomdays will be insufficient; it is the end of the World on Doomsday whereas there is no end to the Virtues of God" (V, 2189,2190).
 

FIGURE-MORAL QUALITY; CRUST-KERNEL (From Mesnevi)

 

"If a man were evaluated with his figure, Ahmed and Ebu Cehil would be equal" (1,1019).

"O, those who worship from! How long will your anxieties for the form last? Why not recover yourself from them?" (1,1018).

"The painting of a man on the wall resembles him but look, find out what is missing in form? Only the vitality in it. Go on, Look for this rare essence! Besides what is the difference of a good looking form form an ugly one after your soul is submerged in the sea of Divine Glory? No writing boasts about someone's form. Only the adjectives like 'sage, wise, ule-ma are include in the books to describe o great man which are related to his spiritual realm" (1,10204025).

"O, you good looking, you charming form! If you are together with bad manners believe me that you are not worth even a false coin" (II, 1020).

"How long have you been wasting time with the decorations on this pitch? Leave it, go on towards the river, towards the water!" (11,1021).

"You see the form but how heedless you are to see the spiritual realms! The wise thing to do is to find the pearl in a shell. Although the bodies around you like the shells in the sea look more concrate in this World, it is impossible to find a pearl in every shell. Search for the pearl in every shell. Search for the pearl in the bodies, search for this rare quality in them!" (II, 1022-1025).

"The pulp of a fruit is always better than its skin. The form is the skin whereas the soul is the pulp of a man. Mankind has a pleasant soul. Do not hesitate to search only for this in him" (III, 3417-3418).
 

REACH THE LOVERS OF GOD, BE A GEM (from Mesnevi)

 

"If you want to reach God you try to be with learned, wise men. You can easily be lost if you are alone as you are only finite fragment of the Universal Whole" (11,2163-2164).

"To be away from the lovers of God means to be away from God" (II, 2214).

"Be with the learned men both to have donation and kindness from God and to learn to be a large-hearted man" (1,711).

"In this World a life without any sense is, in fact, like a wooden sword in its sheath. It its sheath. It seems to be valuable as long as it is kept there. What else can you do with it? Except for lighting a fire with. Avoid having a wooden sword with you in abattle. Check it up before you use it. Seeing it is useless look for another one. If your sword is made of diamond, be merry- Go on with it. Do not forget that diamond swords are only kept in the armoury of lovers of God. Seeing them is rare and precious. The learned, wise men have said: 'Bilen alemlere rahmettir' (A learned man is the rain of the World as a mercy) (I, 712-717).

"You may be a piece of marble, a piece of stone, but still, if you become a lover of God you may turn into a piece of Gem" (1,722).

"A merry pomegranade tree will the whole garden with merriment, similarly, your companionship with the believers of God will make you one of them.

'Take in the company of good men. Do not desire the company of bad people, Do not head for the world of hopelessness. There is always some hope. Do not head for the darkness as there are always suns" (I, 723-724).

'Your love leads you to the world of souls whereas your bodily wishes lead you to a prison full of mud. Be aware then! Feed yourself with the nourishment coming from the belivers, and learn felicity from those who own it" (I, 725-26)

 

WHO CAN BE CALLED AS A SHEIKH?

 

'Who is a sheikh? A man with grey hair grey beard;

but you ignorant man, do not misunderstand it!" (Ill, 1790).

"Black hair and black beard are only related to the form of a person, bu of a sheik he has not even a bristle left in him" (III, 1791).

"Only when someone has left all his presence he can be called as 'Pir' no matter how his hair is , black or grey, these are for his figure, we do not mean it. We do not describe his outlook" (III, 1792-3).

'You son, be sure that, if someone leaves only some of his humanly qualities he is mature man but not a sheikh" (III, 1795).

 

SHUN FOOLISH PEOPLE, DO NOT LEND A HAND TO EVERY PERSON.

 

"Sweet words of an ignorant person look like some very olda poison, do not allow yourself to be carried away by them" (Mesnevi, Volume VI, 1431).

"Jesus said: 'Foolishness is the deep sorrow of God, unlike sickness or blidness. These two arouse the pity even of our Lord but foolishness is such a chronic disease that it destroys not anly its owner but those who accompany him. You should also shun foolish people like Jesus did. How bloody has it been to accomany foolish people!'"(Mesnevi, Volume III, 2592-2593-95).

"Do not enter a village. It makes you a fool, crying the rediance the holy light of your mind. What is a village then/ A sheik who has not reached the truth laying his hands upon false documents" (Mesnevi Volume 111,517-522).

"Vulgar people steal some words of dervishes just to enchant the defectless hearts with them. These ones have neither a sign nor a touch of God but the claim they serve is more than §it or Adam. They go over the words they use even more carefully than Sultan Bayezit used to and find fault in everything. But in fact they themselves are even more sinful than Yezid" (Mesnevi Volume I, 319,2273,2275).

"There are numerous Satans in the form of men. That's why every hand is not worth lending. The hunter of birds imitates the singing of birds, whistles like them, why? Just to lay a trap!" (Mesnevi Volume II, 316,317).

"Lend your hand to nobody but to a Pir, as God has given a hand to him. Once you have lent our hand to a lover of God have adopted yourself to him, it means you are saved" (Mesnevi Volume V; 736,741).

 

HIS INTERPRETATION OF DEATH

 

"While my coffin is being carried, do not think that I am still suffering from the Worldy troubles. Do not cry for me, do not feel any pity. But if I were trapped by Satan, it would really be the time of sorrows. Seeing my coffin do not think that is the time of seperation. It is the time of my joining, meeting. Do not say goodbye to me on leaving me in the Tomb. A tomb is only a curtain before heavens.

As you have seen the sunset you should also watch the rising of the sun. What is the difference of the sunset or the sunshine to you if you are the sun or the moon? You think it is a sunset but in fact, it is the sunrise! Similarly the tomb seems like a gail to you but in fact it is the nourishment of souls. Which seed failed to grow after being sawn? Why do you have a false suspicion for your own germs then? Which bucket can be turned empty after being hung down in a full well? Is there any reason for the soul of Yusuf to suffer, to cry in the well? Just shut your mouth in this world and open it in the other. Now all your troubles are in a

Universal emptiness" (KulliyaM Shems Gazel 911, Golpinarh Mevlana Celaleddin, page 131).
 

REPENTANCE AND ITS IMPORTANCE

 

"Repent first if your life book has already been blackened out. Although your life has almost passed this is the very time to water it with the water of your repentance. Have it green with the water of life, poured to the root of it. All your past sins will be forgiven with this repentance. "The poison of the last year turns out to be sugar this year. God may change badness to goodness. All your past sins are now prayers" (Mesnevi Volume V, pages 2221, 2223, 2224, 2225).

"Man repents and God accepts it. Man obeys the orders coming from God, how beautiful orders God have!" (Mesnevi Volume VI. 3624).

"When those regret and start wailing, crying the throne of God also trembles with these cries, as if a mother trembles with the love of her child on tenterhooks about him. God lends a hand to them, raising them high" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 3625,3626).

Repentance is a horse, carrying its owner above the skies in a short time leaping from this damned world with one attemp" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 464).

 

TEARS

 

"Crying, being in tears is a great capital for you. God's compassion is a unique. Both the nanny and the mother look forward to a child's cries. God created you in need just to produce milk when you cried, 'Call for God' said God. Do not give up crying so that God's compassion will become exuberant (Mesnevi Volume II, 1951-54).

"How can grass be pleased unless clouds cry? How can the foster of a mother become exuberant if a child does not cry? Even a day -old-baby knows how to suck, and cries for it. You do not know but the nanny of nannies do not give you free milk unless you demand. Lend your ear to this God who said 'Cry a lot'. So you cry and have the benevolent foster of God "(Mesnevi Volume V 134137).

'Wherever there is a stream, there becomes green, wherever one sheds tears, there deseeds rain. Shed tears like a treadmill so that grass can grow for the world of souls. Merriment comes after sorrow. Man who can see his future is blessed one "(Mesnevi Volume 1,820,821,819).

 

WHAT IS THE WORLD?

 

"Beeing in this world is to act heedlessly. Living in this world does not mean to profit by buying and selling fabric or money or to have women. Our prophet called the property which is gained to spend for the sake of religion as 'precious property' "(Mesnevi Volume!, 983-984).

It is the destruction of a ship if it is filled with water at sea but if the same water is beneath her, it helps her to float" (Mesnevi Volume 1,985).

"King solomon considered himself as poor just driving all his love of wealth off his mind" (Mesnevi Volume I, 986).

"An etnty but sealed pitch goes on floathing just because it is filled with air. Similarly a man filled with the air of poverty never sinks in the sea of this world. The whole properties of this world mean nothing to him."

 

HIS IDEAS ON WEALTH, POSSESSIONS, POSITION

"Possessions and money are like caps on man. Those who hide themselves with caps are bald ones, but for the thick curled haired people it is better to be without caps" (Mesnevi Volume I, 2343,2344).

"Possessions of this world are traps of weak birds, whereas possessions of the other, world are traps for exalted birds. Properties in the other world are so charming that they can hunt event most exalted ones. Now you are the slaves of your possesions but in fact, the real owner is not a slave. Contrary to fact you are calling yourself as the ruler of the world. Your soul is in the prision of this world. How long will you go on denying this fact?" (Mesnevi Volume IV, 648-652).

"Be sure that the real Sultan is the one who has abondened his Throne. His holy lipht can shine without the help of the sun or the moon" (Mesnevi Volume II, 1469).

"The thing you call as your throne is something wooden, a wooden trap. You think this is the seat of honor but in fact, you are still outside the door" (Mesnevi Volume IV, 661).

"God is the only owner of possessions and the Sultanates. Those who submit to God are not given any possessions this world which is made of Earth but are granted hundreds of Sultanates. If you get the opportunity to prostrate in God's presence, this is far more pleasant for you than two hundred Sultanates, than sovereignty" (Mesnevi Volume IV, 664-665).

"Once you are in God's presence you seek for the same opportunity once more in tears. You vow that this is something more than having lands, states, Sultanates" (Mesnevi Volume IV, 666).

"Do not hesitate to sacrifice your temporary Sultanate, so that God-will donate you the real one" (Mesnevi Volume IV, 2778).

 

WORKING AND MAKING A PROFIT

"Put your trust in God while working; Make money and then, rely on God" (Mesnevi Volume I, 947).

"Working is the right thing. You have troubles and also you have a right to overcome these. Only the unbelievers continuously deny the use of working" (Mesnevi Volume 1,991).

"Thou son, wishing for the harvest of the crop you haven't sown is being avaicious. Do not be tempted with this, as it makes you sick like you have eaten something unripe" Volume n, 732).

"Sometimes somebody happens to find a treasure. The others leave their own accupations by wishing the same for themselves. But this is a matter of good luck, a rare incident. The right fhing -to do is to work hard as long as you have the strenght. Going on working hard is not an obstacle to find another treasure. Do not neglect your own "work. If you have another treasure in your lot it will follow you. Only doing so you can avoid the harm of 'Ifs' The hesitation people are in by saying 'If I had done this, If had done that...l is like a disease. Our prophet banned using "Ifs" explaining its hypocrisy" (MesneviVolume.il, 733-737).

'The damage people have is because of their laziness, The profit people have is the sum of their striver" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 403).

"Strives and beliefs are like a whole body. The essence of this sowing is the crop grown and the gathering of it" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 2093).

"Earning is like a crop. You never have the right unless you sow. But if you have sown you get the right to collect. Otherwise it means you are wrong, tyrannical and this is easy to distinguish" (Mesnevi Volume III, 23292,2393).

"He who sows barley can not reap wheat, he who has a horse has a colt born not a donkey" (Mesnevi Volume 1,1646).

 

HONESTLY EARNED MONEY HONESTLY EARNED MORSEL

 

"The morsel you have had working honestly is something which increases the glory of you, the perfection of you. Science and philosophy, love and compassion are all the fruit of honestly earned morsels. Once- you have been trapped, consumed with jealousy, once you have only had ignorance and indifference Be sure that it has been because of forbidden earnings" (Mesnevi Volume I, 1642, 1644, 1645).

"Morsel is a seed, ideas its product. Morsel is a sea and pearls the ideas in it" (Mesnevi Volume 1,1647).

"The determination in you to serve God and the other World is that of the result of your lawful profit" (Mesnevi Volume I, 1649).

 

BE CONTENTED AND DEMAND ONLY FROM GOD

"Be patient with your poverty, give up being sad about it believing that God's greatness is for you only if you are poor" (Mesnevi Volume I, 2374).

"Know thyself do not tremble. The necessities of your life try to be with you rather than you try to find them out"" (Mesnevi Volume V, 2851).

"Have only a little anxiety to earn money, since you are at work your sustenance will never lessen" (Mesnevi Volume 1,454).

" If you wish for Heaven never demand anything from the others so I will be guarantor that you will enter Heaven and be with God' said our Prophet" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 333,334).

"Know thyself, demand only from God. Look for the water in seas not in dry parts God donates the thing demanded from the others. God fills the hand of one who leans generously towards you" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 1182, 1183).

"Thou, incapable being, why you demanded from those who are also in need?" (Mesnevi Volume V. VI, 3747).

"Look, see, thousands of souls in the sea of sweetness just because of their satisfaction in selling vinegar" (Mesnevi Volume I, 2375).

"Do not be greedy while eating. Be aware of this decree 'Do not waste' as well as the other 'Eat it!'

In this way you can eat the bait without being trapped and this is the way satisfaction requires" (Mesnevi Volume I, 1407, 1708).

 

NON-EXISTENCE

 

"Unless you reach non-existence, you do not find the way to mightiness " (Mesnevi VolumeVI, 232).

'Whoever leaves his bodily desires has the desired character. Being nomore the lover of his form, he is beloved one for everybody" (Mesnevi Volume V, 2665).

"Treasures, values of God can not be compared with concrete things. But thou, being deceived by materials how can you guess what non-existance means?" (Mesnevi Volume III, 4516).

'What does 'becoming exalted' mean? The very same non-existance. It is a path the lovers of God follow, it is the religion they have faith in" (Mesnevi Volume VI, 233).

'What a beautiful Burak (horse which carried the prophet Mohammad for his acension) the horse of non-existence is, carrying you to the real world once you have been non-existent in this one" (Mesnevi Volume IV, 555).

 

WORKS OF MEVLANA

 

His works can be categorised into two parts; poetry and prose. Poetry: Divan- Kebir, Mesnevi and Rubaiyat Prose: Fihi Ma-Fih, Mecalisi-i Seba, Mektubat

 

DIVAN-I KEBIR

 

This is the singing of his inspirations, his heart overflown in ecstacy, with Godly and divine feelings. He recited some of them during Sema ceremonies. This is a complete work including almost forty thousand couplets.

As Mevlana used Shems-i Tebrizi as his pseudonym, this work is also known as Kulliyat-i Shems or Divan-i Shemsu'l Hakayik.

Although he used almost all the forms of meters of his time, the most influential ones are Gazels. However his kasides, mustezats, tercis, rubais and the other forms of poetry are all unique examples of mystical Moslem thinking and lyricism. No other personality has transferred Divine wisdom, philosopy and cultural heritage into lines so successfully and enthusiastically as if distilling these into lines as Mevlana did.

Some of his lines give us touching feelings taking us from the present conditions to a spiritual world so worm and so insatiable in the infinite space of love.

The wine Mevlana mentions in his lines is the one mentioned with the 21 st verse of the Dehir sura of the holy Koran: "Ve sakahum Rabbuhum garaben tahura (Their Lord offered them some pure wine). The same wine is explained in the 21 st to 28 th verses of the Mutaffifin sura:

"Good oned are settled on thrones in Heaven, These people are distinctive with an expression of youth on their faces created by the blessings of

Heaven. They are offered whole pitchers of wine sealed with musk. The ones who compete should compete to taste this wine, as Tesnim (spring of wine which is used by the friends of God) is mixed into it".

All gaiety, joy in the World is Created from a drop of this wine. (72)

 

MESNEVI

 

To mention the truth Mevlana's Mesnevi is the work read most after the holy Koran and Hadis-i Sherif (records of the saying of Prophet Mohammed) by the people and philosophers of the Muslim Warld especially in Iran, in Turkey and in the Islamic parts of the Indian Peninsula. (73)

This piece of work is written with the prosody of the classical Arabic-Persian tradition with "Fa'ilatun, Fa'ilatun, Fa'ilun" meters and known with the names "Mesnevi-i Manevi-i Mevlevi or Mevlevi-i ?erif'

Mesnevi is a great work informing us about etiquette in Islamic mysticism, order of dervishes and their moral values.

There is a warning, a wise saying or a plain truth in every line of this work. It is not only for the educated but for common people as well.

Mesnevi which almost includes twenty-six thousand couplets in six volumes also includes some mocking even impudent statements Although those evaluating them with their literal meaning may find these unpleasant, the concept in them is considered they are really eloquent and perfect.

As a matter of fact Mevlana made it clear by saying:

"Each one of my couplets is not only a couplet but a repertoire of meanings. My jokes are not only jokes but expressions of my teachings"

 

RUBAIYAT

Includes his collection of quatrains.

There are many figurative expressions and much wit in them. Thes piece of work is also a treasure to understand the truth and the divine wisdom of God.

 

FIHIMA-FIH

 

This includes his lectures and is formed by Sultan Veled or one of his novices. After being presented with his correction, Mevlana called this as "Fihi Ma-Fih it means 'The things it includes are all from my own words".

It resembles Mesnevi completely with its gist and it resembles Mesnevi partly with its style. It includes his ideas on the Holy Koran on the sayings of the Prophet Mohammed Islamic mysticism arid moral values.

 

MECALIS-I SEBA

 

This piece of work includes Mevlana's advice statec in his seven different meetings. It is the product of the days of his youth and was preaching. There is some beauty giving suppord to another with a cultural splendour in each one of his works.

 

MEKTUBAT

 

This is the collection of Mevlana's letter's to his friends, to the important and eminent personalities of his age.

These letters are examples of his honesty, kindness, grace and modesty. There are a hundred and forty-four letters altogether.

 

NOTES

(1 A. EFLAKI, Ariflerin Menkibeleri (Interpretation by Tahsin Yazici), ?ark Islam Klasikleri: 26, Millt Egitim Basimevi, Istanbul, 1984 Volume 1 pages, 71,73.
(2) EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume page 6
(3) MEVLANA, Mesnevi (interpretation by Veled izbudak Celebi) §ark islam Klasikleri: 1 Milli Egitim Basimevi, Istanbul 1946, Volume VI, p.175-78.
(4) MELIHA ANBARCIOGLU (Prof.Dr.), The life, the works and the thinking of Sultanul-Ulema Bahaeddin Veled. S.U. I, st. National Mevlana Congrese 3-5 May 1985, Konya Seminar Papers S.Universitesi Basimevi Konya, 1986 page 135
(5) A.SIPEHSALAR, a.g.e. page 16
(6) A.SIPEHSALAR, a.g.e. page 18
(7) A.GOKPINARL1, a.g.e.pages 39-40
(8) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e.Volume I page 11
(9) A.SIPEHSALAR, a.g.e. page 19-20, Eflaki a.g.e. Volume I, 13-14
(10) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. pages 240-41. -
(11) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I page 199
(12) DEVLETS.AH, Devletsah Tezkiresi (Interpretation by Prof.Dr. Necati Lugal) Tercuman 1001 Temel Eser 112, Istanbul, 1977 pages 248-257.
(13) A. NIHADTARLAN, a.g.e. page 11.
(14) DEVLETS.AH, a.g.e. page 249.
(15) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I pages 17-18.
(16) M.BAHARI BEYTUR, Mevlana with the Evalution of his Mesnevi, his poems and his philosophy about love, Sulhi Garan Matbaasi, Istanbul 1965.
(17) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. page 241.
(18) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I page 25.
(19) CELALEDDIN B. Celebi from his closing speach on behalf of the tnulled delegates. S.U.Ist.National Mevlana Congree 3-5 May, 1985, Konya Seminar Papers S.U. Basimevi Konya, 1986 page 449.
(20) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I pages 28-29.
(21) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I page 30.
(22) M.ANBARCIOGLU, a.g.e.Seminar papers page 137.
(23) M.ANBARCIOIGLU, a.g.e. .Seminar papers page 137.
(24) B.FURUZANFER, a.g.e.page 46.
(25) DEVLETS.AH, a.g.e.Volume II, page 250.
(26) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. page 244.
(27) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. page 244.
(28) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. page 246.
(29) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. page 248.
(30) MESNEVI, (interpretation by Veled izbudak Qelebi) volume II, 1319-1320.
(31) SiPEHSALAR, a.g.e.page III, A.EFLAKI a.g.e. Volume I page 75.
(32) SiPEHSALAR, a.g.e. page 32
(33) SiPEHSALAR, a.g.e. page 32
(34) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e.Volume I page 79, Volume II page 39.
(35) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e.Volume I pages 81-82.
(36) SIPEHSALAR, a.g.e. page 163 A.EFLAKI a.g.e. Volume I pages 57-58
(37) DEVLETS. AH, a.g.e. Volume II page 250.
(38) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume 1 page 82.
(39) SULTAN VELED a.g.e. page 248.
(40) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I pages 82-83.
(41) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume II page 66
(42) S. hems-1 TEBRIZI, Makalan (Interpretation by M. Nuri Genc.osman)Hurriyet Yaymlar? 81, Istanbul 1974, page 11.
(43) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume I pages 83.
(44) S.hems-1 TEBRIZI, a.g.e. page 13.
(45) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e, Volume I page 82, II R39
(46) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Pages 249-250.
(47) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 249.
(48) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 51.
(49) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 57.
(50) SIPEHSALAR, a.g.e. Page 176.
(51) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 59
(52) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 64.
(53) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 64.
(54) M.BAHARI BEYTUR, Mevlana with the evoluation of Mesnevi pages 114-15.
(55) B. FURUZANFER, a.g.e. Page 107.
(56) M.BAHARI BEYTUR, a.g.e. Page 115.
(57) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e. Page 115.
(58) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Pages 69-70.
(59) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 73.
(60) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. Page 76.
(61) CUNEYD: Ehu'l Kasm b.el-Ciineyd el-Hazzaz el-Kavariri. He was born in Baghdad and peased away in 909 or in 910. He learned fikih (Muslim canonical jurispudence) from a follower of Imam §afii first. Ha had his mystical knowledge from his uncle Seriyyi Sakati, from Haris Muhasibi and from Ebu Cafer Hadded al of whom were the great devotes of his time, He was beat known as Seyyidiit- taife.
(62) MA'RUF: Consult number 54.
(63) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume 1 pages 97-99.
(64) M. BAHARI BEYTUR, a.g.e. page 96.
(65) M. BAHARI BEYTUR, Slections from Divan-i Kebir page XXX
(66) M. BAHARI BEYTUR, Slections from Divan-i Kebir page XXX
(67) A. NiHAD TARLAN, a.g.e.page 35.
(68) Shems-i TEBRIZI, a.g.e. page 11.
(69) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. pages 79-81.
(70) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. pages 142443.
(71) SULTAN VELED, a.g.e. pages 146447.
(72) A. EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume II pages 11-12 Kulliyat-i Shems Gazel. 2039
(73) A.EFLAKI, a.g.e. Volume II page 7
(74) M. BAHARI BEYTUR, Mesnevi Gozuyle Mevlana (Mevlana with the evaluation of his Mesnevi) pages 26-27.
(75) ABDULKADIR KARAHAN (Prof.Dr.), a.g.e.page 93.

 

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